Adjuvant Index page
A Glimpse into the Scary World of Vaccine Adjuvants By Edda West
Dr. Scheibner Article - Adjuvants in Vaccines (part 1 and 2) 
Vaccine A: The Covert Government Experiment That's Killing Our Soldiers and Why GIs Are Only the First Victims
Flyer on Vaccine A and oil based adjuvants. - HTML/WebPage
Flyer on Vaccine A and oil based adjuvants. - Adobe PDF
FLU SHOTS AND THE NEW ADJUVANTS: BEWARE!
Dr. Sherri Tenpenny, DO - May 1, 2006
First published at: NewsWithViews.com
"Multiple studies published in highly reputable publications have documented that flu shots are ineffective in all ages."
"..., one adjuvant has been approved in Europe and its approval is on the way for use in the U.S. It is an oil-based adjuvant called MF-59, a compound primarily composed of squalene."
Read whole story at: NewsWithViews.com
A Glimpse into the Scary World of Vaccine Adjuvants
Vran.org contact link is at the bottom of their home page.
By Edda West - Published in VRAN Newsletter - Winter 2005
Adjuvants are formulated compounds, which when combined with vaccine
antigens intensify the body's immune response. They are used to elicit an
early, high and long-lasting immune response. "The chemical nature of
adjuvants, their mode of action and their reactions (side effect) are
highly variable in terms of how they affect the immune system and how
serious their adverse effects are due to the resultant hyperactivation of
the immune system. While adjuvants enable the use of less *antigen to
achieve the desired immune response and reduce vaccine production costs,
with few exceptions, adjuvants are foreign to the body and cause adverse
reactions", writes Australian scientist Viera Scheibner Ph.D, (1)
The most common adjuvant for human use is an aluminum salt called alum
derived from aluminum hydroxide, or aluminum phosphate. A quick read of the
scientific literature reveals that the neurotoxic effects of aluminum were
recognized 100 years ago. Aluminum is a neurotoxicant and has been linked
to Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders. Prior to 1980,
kidney patients undergoing long term dialysis treatments often suffered
dialysis encephalopathy syndrome, the result of acute intoxication by the
use of an aluminium-containing dialysate. This is now avoided using modern
techniques of water purification. In preterm infants, prolonged
intravenous feeding with solutions containing aluminum is associated with
impaired neurologic development. Scientists speculate that aluminum
neurotoxicity may be related to cell damage via free radical production,
impairment of glucose metabolism, and effects on nerve signal transduction.
(2) Vaccines which contain both aluminum adjuvants and mercury based
preservative, greatly magnify the neurotoxic effects. (3)
Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is a muscle disease first identified in
1993, and has been linked to vaccines containing aluminum adjuvants.
Muscle pain is the most frequent symptom which can be localized to the
limbs or be more diffuse. Other symptoms include joint pain, muscle
weakness, fatigue, fever, and muscle tenderness. The disorder is associated
with an altered immune system in some, but not all patients. A study
published in the journal Brain (2001) revealed that 50 out of 50 patients
had received vaccines against hepatitis B virus (86%), hepatitis A virus
(19%) or tetanus toxoid (58%), 3-96 months (median 36 months) before
biopsy. "We conclude that the MMF lesion is secondary to intramuscular
injection of aluminium hydroxide-containing vaccines, shows both long-term
persistence of aluminium hydroxide and an ongoing local immune reaction,
and is detected in patients with systemic symptoms which appeared
subsequently to vaccination", write the authors of the study. (4)
But aluminum's neurotoxicity is of less concern to the vaccine industry
than the fact that it elicits a lesser antibody response to the so called
purer recombinant or synthetic antigens used in modern day vaccines than in
older style live or killed whole organism vaccines. "This has created a
major need for improved and more powerful adjuvants for use in these
For decades, vaccine developers have been tinkering with various substances
to trick the body into heightened immune responses. The most effective
adjuvants are formulated with oils but have long been considered too
reactive for use in humans. Immunologists have known for decades that a
microscopic dose of even a few molecules of adjuvant injected into the body
can cause disturbances in the immune system and have known since the1930's
that oil based adjuvants are particularly dangerous, which is why their
use has been restricted to experiments with animals.
The classic oil based adjuvant called Freund's Complete Adjuvant can cause
permanent organ damage and irreversible disease - specifically autoimmune
diseases. When scientists want to induce autoimmune disease in a lab
animal, they inject it with Freund's Complete Adjuvant, which causes great
suffering and is considered by some too inhumane to even inject into
Dr. Jules Freund creator of this oil based adjuvant warned in 1956 that
animals injected with his formulation developed terrible, incurable
conditions: allergic aspermatogenesis (stoppage of sperm production),
experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (the animal version of MS),
allergic neuritis (inflammation of the nerves that can lead to paralysis)
and other severe autoimmune disorders. (6)
Adjuvants can break "tolerance", meaning they can disable the immune system
to the degree that it loses its ability to distinguish what is "self" from
what is foreign. Normally, the immune system ignores the constituents of
one's own body. Immunologists call this "tolerance". But if something
happens to break "tolerance", then the immune system turns relentlessly
self-destructive, attacking the body it is supposed to defend. (6)
Scientists theorize that oil based adjuvants have the ability to
"hyperactivate" the immune system, and in doing so, create chaos by
inducing such an extremely powerful response that the immune system
literally goes haywire and starts attacking elements it would normally
Another theory has to do with "specificity". One of the great
distinguishing characteristics of the immune system is something akin to a
highly sensitive innate intelligence that has evolved over eons to be able
to respond very precisely to what it deems to be a threat to the body.
Because the body contains many types of oily molecules and lipids, it may
be that when an oil is injected, the immune system responds to it not only
specifically, but with heightened intensity because the oil adjuvant
resembles so closely the natural oils found in the body. A "cross
reaction" then happens, sending the immune system into chaos destroying any
oils found anywhere in the body that resemble the adjuvant oil.
Demyelinating diseases like multiple sclerosis are an example of this
destructive autoimmune process. (6)
To deepen one's understanding of the shadowy world of vaccine development,
award winning investigative journalist Gary Matsumoto's new book is a "must
read." It documents the secret human medical experimentation conducted on
American citizens by doctors and scientists working for the U.S. military.
It is a book about "betrayal of the most fundamental rules of medical
ethics; and betrayal of the basic duty of military and civilian leaders to
protect the people they govern." Vaccine A: The Covert Government
Experiment That's Killing our Soldiers and Why GI's are Only the First
Victims, is a gripping read into the mad science world of the U.S.
military's biowarfare vaccine development program which, since 1987 has
injected tens of thousands of U.S. troops with an experimental unlicensed
anthrax vaccine containing squalene. An oil based adjuvant, squalene has
been known for decades to cause severe autoimmune diseases in laboratory
animals. Writes Matsumoto, "The unethical experiments detailed in this book
are ongoing, with little prospect of being self-limiting because they have
been shielded from scrutiny and public accountability by national security
concerns." Reading this book, one gets a permanent chill in the spine as
we glimpse the "writing on the wall" of what is to come. (6,7)
"When UCLA Medical School's Michael Whitehouse and Frances Beck injected
squalene combined with other materials into rats and guinea pigs back in
the 1970's, few oils were more effective at causing the animal versions of
arthritis and multiple sclerosis", writes Matsumoto. In 1999, Dr. Johnny
Lorentzen, an immunologist at Sweden's Karolinska Institute proved that on
injection, "otherwise benign molecules like squalene can stimulate a
self-destructive immune response", even though they occur naturally in the
body. Other research institutes have also shown that the immune system
makes antibodies to squalene, but only after it is injected (6)
We now know that squalene, added to boost immune response in a formulation
known as MF59, is the secret ingredient in certain lots of experimental
anthrax vaccine that has caused devastating autoimmune diseases and death
in countless Gulf War vets (Canadian, British and Australian troops were
also injected with squalene laced vaccine), and continues to be used today.
There is a "close match between the squalene-induced diseases in animals
and those observed in humans injected with this oil: rheumatoid arthritis,
multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus", writes Matsumoto.
These three illnesses have been proven to be caused by this oil, but there
is an additional long list of autoimmune diseases associated with squalene
injection into humans. (6)
"There are now data in more than two dozen peer-reviewed scientific papers,
from ten different laboratories in the U.S., Europe, Asia and Australia,
documenting that squalene-based adjuvants can induce autoimmune diseases in
animals..observed in mice, rats, guinea pigs and rabbits. Sweden's
Karolinska Institute has demonstrated that squalene alone can induce the
animal version of rheumatoid arthritis. The Polish Academy of Sciences has
shown that in animals, squalene alone can produce catastrophic injury to
the nervous system and the brain. The University of Florida Medical School
has shown that in animals, squalene alone can induce production of
antibodies specifically associated with systemic lupus erythematosus",
writes Matsumoto. (6)
Long List of Side Effects
Referring to squalene in her extensive article on adjuvants, Dr. Scheibner
writes, "This adjuvant contributed to the cascade of reactions called "Gulf
War syndrome", documented in the soldiers involved in the Gulf War. The
symptoms they developed included arthritis, fibromyalgia, lymphadenopathy,
rashes, photosensitive rashes, malar rashes, chronic fatigue, chronic
headaches, abnormal body hair loss, non-healing skin lesions, aphthous
ulcers, dizziness, weakness, memory loss, seizures, mood changes,
neuropsychiatric problems, anti-thyroid effects, anaemia, elevated ESR
(erythrocyte sedimentation rate), systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple
sclerosis, ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) also known as Lou Gehrig's
disease, Raynaud's phenomenon, Sjorgren's syndrome, chronic diarrhoea,
night sweats and low-grade fevers. (1)
Matsumoto punctuates his book with poignant interviews of military
personnel who suffered many of these extreme and devastating syndromes,
all of whom tested positive for anti-squalene antibodies which has become
THE definitive marker for people who have been injected with this adjuvant
and who have gone on to develop catastrophic diseases.
Immunologist, Dr. Pamela Asa was the first person to recognize that the
autoimmune diseases she was seeing in military personnel mirrored those in
experimental animals injected with oil formulated adjuvants. When she met
a patient with similar autoimmune symptoms who had participated in an
experimental herpes vaccine trial, who also knew he had been injected with
MF59, a squalene adjuvant being used as a 'placebo' in that study,
everything began to fall into place. Pam Asa contacted Dr. Robert Garry, a
leading virologist at Tulane University Medical School, whose specialty is
developing antibody tests and asked him to develop a test for the detection
of anti-squalene antibodies - a test that ultimately became the most
important forensic and diagnostic tool identifying patients whose
autoimmune diseases followed injection with squalene laced anthrax vaccine.
Juxtaposed to heart wrenching testimonies of shattered health and ruined
lives is the military's defiant stonewall and denial that a squalene laced
anthrax vaccine was injected into thousands of its people without their
informed consent - this despite the fact that the FDA and independent
researchers have tested and identified varying amounts of squalene in
specific lots of the vaccine.
Even more stunning is the fact that by 1997, hundreds of millions of
dollars had already been spent testing vaccines formulated with squalene
adjuvants by leading research institutes like NIH (National Institutes of
Health) who tested its efficacy in HIV vaccines, the National Cancer
Institute who for nearly two decades conducted research with
squalene-boosted vaccines, and the National Institutes of Allergy and
Infectious Diseases (NIAID) had been testing it in animals since 1988 and
began human clinical trials in1991. Nineteen of NIAID's 23 trials were for
prototype HIV vaccines. Writes Matsumoto, " Squalene adjuvants are a key
ingredient in a whole new generation of vaccines intended for mass
immunization around the globe." (6)
Immune System Sees Squalene as an Enemy to Attack
Researchers at Tulane Medical School and the Walter Reed Army Institute of
Research "have both proven that the immune system responds specifically to
the squalene molecule. Squalene's pathway through the body has been
tracked with a radioactive tracer in animals by none other than Chiron,
(well known flu vaccine manufacturer) and maker of MF59, the squalene-based
adjuvant, now also a component of FLUAD, an Italian influenza vaccine. (6)
The immune system does in fact "see" squalene and recognizes it as an oil
molecule native to the body. The key is "route of administration". As Gary
Matsumoto says, "Squalene is not just a molecule found in a knee or elbow -
it is found throughout the nervous system and the brain." When it is
injected into the body, the immune system sees it as an enemy to be
attacked and eliminated.(6)
As any immunologist will tell you, the way an antigen encounters the immune
system makes all the difference. You can eat squalene - no problem as it is
an oil the body can easily digest. But studies in animals and humans show
that injecting squalene will "galvanize the immune system into attacking
it, which can produce a self-destructive cross reaction against the same
molecule in the places where it occurs naturally in the body - and where it
is critical to the health of the nervous system." (6)
This phenomenon is also known as 'molecular mimicry', where the immune
system forms antibodies against one of its own structures and will continue
to attack the 'self' molecule in the body that resembles the one in the
germ, or as is the case with squalene, an identical substance that is
naturally present in the body. Once this self-destructive process begins,
it never stops as the body continues to make the molecule the immune system
is now trained to attack.
Another example involving autoimmune 'molecular mimicry' is when the immune
system has been sensitized to attack myelin, the insulating fatty coating
around nerve fibres which insures the smooth relay of nerve signals. The
body would continue to make myelin in order to replenish and repair the
protective sheath around its nerve endings. But says Matsumoto, "In the act
of doing so, the body immunizes itself against itself, administering over
and over again what amounts to a booster dose of something that the immune
system now wants to get rid of. This vital constituent (myelin) is now the
enemy, and the immune system is now programmed to obliterate it in an
endless loop of self-destruction" - the process involved in MS (multiple
sclerosis), and ALS (Lou Gehrig's disease).(6)
Tying molecular mimicry to the autism epidemic, many children have
regressed into autism spectrum disorders after injection with the triple
live virus MMR (measles,mumps,rubella) vaccine. Dr.Vijendra Singh's
research at Utah State University suggests that auto-antibodies are
attacking myelin in these children. He has shown that many autistic
children have auto-antibodies to brain myelin basic protein (MBP) as well
as elevated levels of measles virus antibodies. "Immunoblotting analysis
showed the presence of an unusual MMR antibody in 60% (75 of 125) of
autistic children, but none of the 92 normal children had this antibody.
In addition, there was a positive correlation (greater than 90%) between
MMR antibody and MBP auto-antibody, suggesting a causal association between
MMR and brain autoimmunity in autism. This is one of the most important
findings in autism to date, which prompted us to link measles virus in the
etiology of the disorder", writes Dr. Singh. (8,9,10)
Immunologist Dr. Bonnie Dunbar has also done extensive research on the
mechanisms of injury inflicted by hepatitis B vaccine and has observed
similar autoimmune processes involving molecular mimicry in people who
developed devastating neuroimmune syndromes after injection with this
Molecular Mimicry as a Bio-Weapon
Matsumoto reports that Soviet bioweaponeers used the principal of molecular
mimicry in the 1980's to engineer a 'designer disease' that would attack
myelin. By splicing a fragment of myelin basic protein into legionella
bacterium, they created what amounted to a living "nano-bomb", which they
injected into guinea pigs. What they found was that the immune system
quickly cleared the legionella bacterium, but the myelin molecule, smuggled
in by this microbial "Trojan horse" initiated a second wave of disease
which caused experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, the animal version of
MS. The Soviets recognized this creation for what it was - a biological
time bomb!! (6)
"Squalene is a kind of trigger for the real biological weapon: the immune
system. When the immune system's full repertoire of cells and antibodies
start attacking the tissues they are supposed to protect, the results can
be catastrophic," writes Matsumoto. His assessment is seconded by Dr. Pam
Asa - "Oil adjuvants are the most insidious chemical weapon ever devised."
"Molecular mimicry, seen for its diabolical potential as a weapon by the
Soviets as far back as the 1980's, also applies to squalene. But the real
problem with using squalene, of course, is not that it mimics a molecule
found in the body; it is the same molecule," writes Matsumoto. "So what
American scientists conceived as a vaccine booster was another "nano-bomb",
instigating chronic, unpredictable and debilitating disease. When the NIH
(National Institutes of Health) argued that squalene would be safe because
it is native to the body, just the opposite was true. Squalene's natural
presence in the body made it one of the most dangerous molecules ever
injected into man!" (6)
The main proponents for the use of squalene in vaccines have been the U.S
Department of Defense and the NIH. The anti-squalene antibodies in sick
American and British military personnel are evidence that military
experimentation has caused an unprecedented health catastrophe in tens of
thousands of people onto whom the vaccine was forced and who were denied
the right to make an informed decision based on existing scientific
knowledge of the dangers of injecting squalene. "By adding squalene to
their new anthrax vaccine, they did not make a better vaccine, they made a
biological weapon." (6)
Why , one would obviously ask, would anyone knowingly inject such a
dangerous substance into humans? Certainly in terms of the U.S. military's
decision, they chose to turn a blind eye to the existing science, which
for decades had documented the immune destructive properties of squalene.
They justified its use because they knew they had a weak and ineffective
vaccine which needed a serious boost. In the face of weaponized biowarfare
agents like anthrax already developed by Russia and fear that it was also
possessed by Iraq, they were desperate to increase the vaccine's
effectiveness as they launched into the first Gulf War. Additionally,
explains Matsumoto, "scientists in the United States are now literally
invested in squalene. Army scientists who developed the second generation
anthrax vaccine have reputations to protect and licensing fees to reap for
the army..[and] .worldwide rights to develop and commercialize the new
recombinant vaccine for anthrax." (6)
He goes on to explain, "the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has been
supporting both animal and human research with squalene since the 1980's.
Squalene has become perhaps the most ubiquitous oil adjuvant on the planet,
which is something that should concern everyone. Many of the cutting edge
vaccines currently in development by the NIH and its corporate partners
contain squalene in one formulation or another. There is squalene in the
prototype recombinant vaccines for HIV, malaria, herpes, influenza,
cytomegalovirus and human papillomavirus. Some of these prototypes like
HIV, malaria and influenza are intended for mass immunization around the
Squalene Adjuvants Enter the Global Market
FLUAD, the squalene boosted flu vaccine has been licensed in Italy since
1997. It contains MF59, the squalene adjuvant made by Chiron. Although all
the published papers co-authored by Chiron-employed scientists and Italian
researchers have reported MF59 to be safe, Gary Matsumoto suggests a flaw
in study designs may "prevent researchers from seeing the vaccine's real
risks." Testing of FLUAD was limited to elderly people in nursing homes -
average age was 71.5 which would tend to obscure autoimmune problems that
might arise for a number of reasons. If autoimmune symptoms like joint pain
and fatigue did occur in geriatric Italians, doctors might not connect
these complaints to anything but old age. (6)
"Autoimmunity is notorious for taking years to diagnose because the early
symptoms (e.g. headaches, joint and muscle pain and fatigue) are so vague;
primary care physicians often fail to recognize it...a large Phase lV trial
did not even bother to analyze the "common-post immunization reactions" in
study participants, recording only those adverse events severe enough to
require a doctor's visit within 7 days of immunization." In another study
patients were observed for 180 days, but only serious events like
"admission to hospital or death" qualified as a reaction - nothing else was
recorded. Symptoms of adverse reactions listed in the FLUAD package insert
are almost identical to the Air Force case-definition for Gulf War
Syndrome, and include rashes, malaise, fever, myalgia, arthralgia,
weakness, sweating and various autoimmune reactions and neurologic
"The question is whether scientists working for pharmaceutical companies
are intentionally designing studies so as to miss adverse reactions that
inconvenience their marketing strategy?" asks Matsumoto. "Chiron's
conclusion about squalene's safety are at odds with recent data from
studies in both animals and humans." (6)
Just in from the newslists on February 9, 2005 is an item informing of the
European "debut" of a new adjuvant approved for use in a new high-potency
hepatitis B vaccine. Fendrix, the new enhanced hepB vaccine is being
launched by pharma giant GlaxoSmithKline for use in people with poor immune
responses (like dialysis patients) and those at high risk for developing
hepatitis B. It is formulated with a new adjuvant that can "significantly
improve the effectiveness of immunizations." AS04, the 'proprietary'
adjuvant based on MPL, originally developed by U.S. company Corixa,
"increases the immune potency of the new vaccine, allowing two dose
administration rather than three. It has been shown clinically to be more
effective than alum, the most widely used adjuvant in vaccines." (12)
So what exactly is this new high potency adjuvant? We're told by the press
release that MPL (AS04), is a "derivative of the lipid A molecule found in
Gram-negative bacteria, is extracted from bacterial cell walls and is one
of the most potent regulators of the immune response, used by the body to
alert itself to bacterial infections."(12) Full name of the lipid is
monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL)
This news should put everyone on high alert because guess what? Lipids are
oils/fatty acids and according to Matsumoto, MPL is identified in
declassified documents as one of two squalene emulsions used in the Army's
new "recombinant protective antigen anthrax vaccine (rPA) which the FDA,
the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Department of Defense
fast-tracked into clinical trials in1998. The other squalene adjuvant they
used was Chiron's MF59. (6)
It appears that Fendrix is only the first of a whole new generation of
"enhanced potency" vaccines coming down the pipeline using the new high
potency lipid adjuvant, MPL. "The adjuvant is also being used in a number
of GSK's developmental vaccines, including one that could be the first
effective vaccine for malaria", says the article. MPL (AS04) adjuvant is
also a component of GSK Bio's genital herpes vaccine, as well as a
component in their cervical cancer vaccine and a new tuberculosis vaccine."
In the unraveling of the squalene story, we find that a squalene emulsion
first known as Triple Mix (based on Freund's adjuvant) was later given the
commercial name "Ribi". Triple Mix (renamed Ribi) was tested by Dutch
scientists on rabbits who found it caused "severe effects.the largest
number and most severe lesions when compared with the other adjuvants."(6)
Then in June 1999, Ribi ImmunoChem its manufacturer was acquired by Corixa
Corporation for $56.3 million, who presumably also own the Ribi
formulation. Whether MPL(AS04) is a formula related to Ribi is undoubtedly
"proprietary" information, but from Matsumoto's reseasrch, we know they are
all squalene based. And it doesn't end there. MPL, Corixa's multi-million
dollar baby, is slated for inclusion not only in the "enhanced potency"
vaccines already mentioned, but will also be a strategic component of new
allergy and autoimmune vaccines in development. (13)
From their inception, mass vaccinations have acted as a biological weapon,
undermining health, manipulating and crippling the immune system, and
instigating cycles of new and debilitating diseases. Monopoly medicine's
solution? Inject us with more powerful, genetically engineered high
potency vaccines. Never mind they are seeding us with "nano-bombs" that
will further attack our already compromised immune systems.
The concept of stimulating a hyperactive immune response by using oil-based
adjuvants has clearly backfired since we now know that the stronger the
antigenic response, the more damaging the adjuvant itself is to the normal
functioning of the brain and nervous system. The precedent for mass medical
experimentation via an ever increasing recommended vaccine schedule has
been set. We can now predict the grim future of mankind: an epidemic of
neurological disorders and autoimmune diseases never before imagined.
Notes & Resources
Adjuvants listed by Scheibner: "Today the most common adjuvants for human
use are aluminum hydroxide, aluminum phosphate and calcium phosphate.
However, there are a number of other adjuvants based on oil emulsions,
products from bacteria (their synthetic derivatives as well as liposomes)
or gram-negative bacteria, endotoxins, cholesterol, fatty acids, aliphatic
amines, paraffinic and vegetable oils. Recently, monophosphoryl lipid A,
ISCOMs with Quil-A, and Syntex adjuvant formulations (SAFs) containing the
threonyl derivative or muramyl dipeptide have been under consideration for
use in human vaccines
*Definition of Antigen (Scheibner): "Micro-organisms, either bacteria or
viruses, thought to be causing certain infectious diseases and which the
vaccine is supposed to prevent. These are whole-cell proteins or just the
broken-cell protein envelopes, and are called antigens"
1.Viera Scheibner, Ph.D, The Adverse Effects of Adjuvants in Vaccines,
Nexus Magazine Dec. 2000 vol.8, No.1
2. Aluminum Toxicity notes from Dr. Boyd Haley Toxic Test Foundation
3. Boyd E. Haley, Professor of Chemistry: Thimerosal Containing Vaccines
and Neurodevelopment Outcomes:
4. Brain, Vol. 124, No. 9, 1821-1831, September 2001, 2001 Oxford
5 Vaccine Adjuvants: current state and future trends, Volume 82: Issue
Immunology and Cell Biology
6.Gary Matsumoto, Vaccine A-The Covert Government Experiment That's Killing
our Soldiers and Why GI's are Only the First Victims
7.Gary Matsumoto Press Release and biography: www.vaccine-a.com
8 Vijendra K Singh, Ph.D, Abnormal Measles Serology and Autoimmunity in
Autistic Children - Journal of Allergy & Clinical Immunol, 109 (1): S232,
9. Vijendra Singh - lecture at ATEDM Conference:
10. Institute of Medicine Meeting (IOM) on Vaccines and Autism, February 9,
11.. Bonnie Dunbar, Ph.D - articles and research proposal - VRAN website:
12..New adjuvant debuts in new hep B vaccine , February 9, 2005, In-Pharma
13. Corixa weblink to MPL press release on allergy & autoimmune
Subject: Dr. Scheibner Article - Adjuvants in Vaccines
Date: Mon, 30 Apr 2001 12:29:08 -0700
ADVERSE EFFECTS OF ADJUVANTS IN VACCINES by Viera Scheibner (Part 1)
Part 2 is below
ADVERSE EFFECTS OF ADJUVANTS IN VACCINES by Viera Scheibner, Ph.D. 2000
Nexus Dec 2000 (Vol 8, No1)
ADJUVANTS, PRESERVATIVES AND TISSUE FIXATIVES IN VACCINES
Vaccines contain a number of substances which can be divided into the
1. Micro-organisms, either bacteria or viruses, thought to be causing
certain infectious diseases and which the vaccine is
supposed to prevent. These are whole-cell proteins or just the broken-cell
protein envelopes, and are called antigens.
2. Chemical substances which are supposed to enhance the immune response to
the vaccine, called adjuvants.
3. Chemical substances which act as preservatives and tissue fixatives,
which are supposed to halt any further chemical
reactions and putrefaction (decomposition or multiplication) of the live or
attenuated (or killed) biological constituents of the
All these constituents of vaccines are toxic, and their toxicity may vary,
as a rule, from one batch of vaccine to another.
In this article, the first of a two-part series, we shall deal with
adjuvants, their expects role and the reactions (side effects).
The desired immune response to vaccines is the production of antibodies,
and this is enhanced by adding certain substances to
the vaccines. These are called adjuvants (from the Latin adjuvare, meaning
The chemical nature of adjuvants, their mode of action and their reactions
(side effect) are highly variable. According to Gupta
et al. (1993), some of the side effects can be ascribed to an unintentional
stimulation of different mechanisms of the immune
system whereas others may reflect general adverse pharmacological reactions
which are more less expected.
There are several types of adjuvants. Today the most common adjuvants for
human use are aluminium hydroxide, aluminium
phosphate and calcium phosphate. However, there are a number of other
adjuvants based on oil emulsions, products from
bacteria (their synthetic derivatives as well as liposomes) or
gram-negative bacteria, endotoxins, cholesterol, fatty acids,
aliphatic amines, paraffinic and vegetable oils. Recently, monophosphoryl
lipid A, ISCOMs with Quil-A, and Syntex adjuvant
formulations (SAFs) containing the threonyl derivative or muramyl dipeptide
have been under consideration for use in human
Chemically, the adjuvants are a highly heterogenous group of compounds with
only one thing in common: their ability to
enhance the immune response-their adjuvanticity. They are highly variable
in terms of how they affect the immune system and
how serious their adverse effects are due to the resultant hyperactivation
of the immune system.
The mode of action of adjuvants was described by Chedid (1985) as: the
formation of a depot of antigen at the site of
inoculation, with slow release; the presentation of antigen immunocompetent
cells; and the production of various and different
lymphokines (interleukins and tumour necrosis factor).
The choice of any of these adjuvants reflects a compromise between a
requirement for adjuvanticity and an acceptable low
level of adverse reactions.
The discovery of adjuvants dates back to 1925 and 1926, when Ramon (quoted
by Gupta et al., 1993) showed that the
antitoxin response to tetanus and diphtheria was increased by injection of
these vaccines, together with other compounds such
as agar, tapioca, lecithin, starch oil, saponin or even breadcrumbs.
The term adjuvant has been used for any material that can increase the
humoral or cellular immune response. to an antigen. In
the conventional vaccines, adjuvants are used to elicit an early, high and
long-lasting immune response. The newly developed
purified subunit or synthetic vaccines using biosynthetic, recombinant and
other modern technology are poor immunogens and
require adjuvants to evoke the immune response.
The use of adjuvants enables the use of less antigen to achieve the desired
immune response, and this reduces vaccine
production costs. With a few exceptions, adjuvants are foreign to the body
and cause adverse reactions.
Part 1 deals with the following types of adjuvants (after Gupta et al,
Freund's emulsified oil adjuvants (complete and incomplete)
Emulsified peanut oil adjuvant (adjuvant 65)
Corynebacterium granulosumderived P40 component
Mycobacteriwn and its components
Immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs)
In the 1960s, emulsified water-in-oil and water-in-vegetable-oil adjuvant
preparations used experimentally showed special
promise in providing exalted "immunity" of long duration (Hilleman, 1966).
The development of Freund's adjuvants emerged
from studies of tuberculosis. Several researchers noticed that
immunological responses in animals to various antigens were
enhanced by introduction into the animal of living Mycobacterium
tuberculosis. In the presence of Mycobacterium, the
reaction obtained was of the delayed type, transferrable with leukocytes.
Freund measured the effect of mineral oil in causing
delayed-type hypersensitivity to killed mycobacteria. There was a
remarkable increase in complement-fixing antibody response
as well as in delayed hypersensitivity reaction.
Freund's adjuvant consists of a water-in-oil emulsion of aqueous antigen in
paraffin (mineral) oil of low specific gravity and low
viscosity. Drakeol 6VR and Arlacel A (mannide monooleate) are commonly used
There are two Freund's adjuvants: incomplete and complete. The incomplete
Freund's adjuvant consists of water-in-oil
emulsion without added mycobacteria; the complete Freund's adjuvant
consists of the same components but with 5 mg of
dried, heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis or butyricum added.
The mechanism of action of Freund's adjuvants is associated with the
following three phenomena:
1. The establishment of a portion of the antigen in a persistent form at
the injection site, enabling a gradual and continuous
release of antigen for stimulating the antibody;
2. The provision of a vehicle for transport of emulsified antigen
throughout the lymphatic system to distant places, such as lymph
nodes and spleen, where new foci of antibody formation can be established;
3. Formation and accumulation of cells of the mononuclear series which are
appropriate to the production of antibody at the
local and distal sites.
The pathologic reaction to the Freund's adjuvants starts at the injection
site with mild erythema and swelling followed by tissue
necrosis, intense inflammation and the usual progression to the formation
of a granulomatous lesion. Scar and abscess formation
may occur. The reactions observed following the administration of the
complete adjuvant are generally far more extensive than
with the incomplete adjuvant. The earliest cellular response is
polymorphonuclear, then it changes into mononuclear and later
includes plasmocytes. The adjuvant emulsion may be widely disseminated in
varrious organs, depending on the route of
inoculation, with the development of focal granulomatous lesions at distal
places. Various gram-negative organisms may show a
potentiating effect of the adjuvant, similar to that displayed by
The earliest use of oil emulsion adjuvants was made with the influenza,
vaccine by Friedwald (1944) and by Henle and Henle
(1945). Following their promising results on animals, Salk (1951)
experimented with such adjuvants on soldiers under the
auspices of the US Armed Forces Epidemiological Board. He used a highly
refined mineral oil, and developed a purified
Arlacel A emulsifier which was free of toxic substances, such as oleic acid
which had caused sterile abscesses at the injection
site, and he administered the vaccine by intramuscular route.
Subsequently, Miller et al. (1965) reported their, failure to enhance the
antibody and protective response to types 3, 4 and 7
adenovirus vaccines in mineral oil adjuvant compared with aqueous vaccine.
Unpublished studies have revealed the need for an
adequate minimal amount of antigen to trigger an antibody response to the
Salk et al. (1953) applied Freund's adjuvant to poliomyelitis vaccine, and
later followed with extensive testing of killed crude as
well as purified polio virus vaccine in animals and humans, where the
reactions in humans were considered inconsequential.
Grayston et al. (1964) reported highly promising results with the trachoma
vaccine using an oil adjuvant. However, the
trachoma vaccine lost its relevance because, as demonstrated by Dolin et
al. (1997) in their 37 years of research in a
sub-Saharan village, the dramatic fall in the disease occurrence was
closely connected with improvements in sanitation, water
supply, education and access to health care. According to Dolin et al.
(1997), the decline in trachoma occurred without any
Allergens in Freund's adjuvant deserve special attention because they can
be dangerous. These dangers include an overdose,
i.e., the immediate release of more than the tolerated amount of properly
emulsified vaccine in sensitive persons, or the breaking
of the emulsion with the release of all or part of the full content of the
allergen within a brief period of time. Long-term delayed
reactions include the development of nodules, cysts or sterile abscesses
requiring surgical incision. It is also likely that some
allergens used, such as house dust or mould, might have acted like
mycobacteria to potentiate the inflammatory response. Such
reactions have been reduced with the use of properly tested and
One must also consider that the first application of Freund's adjuvants was
made at a time when modern concepts of safety
were non-existent Indeed, mineral oil adjuvants have not been approved for
human use in some countries, including the USA.
Aluminium phosphate or aluminium hydroxide (alum) are the mineral compounds
most commonly used as adjuvants in human
vaccines. Calcium phosphate is another adjuvant that is used in many
vaccines. Mineral salts of metals such as cerium nitrate,
zinc sulphate, colloidal iron hydroxide and calcium chloride were observed
to increase the antigenicity of' the toxoids, but alum
gave the best results.
The use of alum was applied more than 70 years ago by Glenny et al. (1926),
who discovered that a suspension of
alum-precipitated diphtheria toxoid had a much higher immunogenicity than
the fluid toxoid. Even though a number of reports
stated that alum-adjuvanted vaccines were no better than plain vaccines
(Aprile and Wardlaw, 1966), the use of alum as an
adjuvant is now well established. The most widely used is the antigen
solution mixed with pre-formed aluminium hydroxide or
aluminium phosohate under controlled conditions. Such vaccines are now
called aluminium-adsorbed or
aluminium-adjuvanted. However, they are difficult to manufacture in a
physico-chemically reproducible way, which results in
a batch-to-batch variation of the same vaccine. Also, the degree of antigen
absorption to the gels of aluminium phosphate and
aluminium hydroxide varies. To minimise the variation and avoid the
non-reproducibility, a specific preparation of aluminium
hydroxide (Alhydrogel) was chosen as the standard in 1988 (Gupta et al.,
The aluminium adjuvants allow the slow release of antigen, prolonging the
time for interaction between antigen and
antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes. However, in some studies, the
potency of adjuvanted pertussis vaccines was more
than that of the plain pertussis vaccines, while in others no effect was
noted. The serum agglutinin titres, after vaccination with
adjuvanted pertussis vaccines, were higher than those of the plain
vaccines, with no difference in regard to protection against
the disease (Butler et al., 1962). Despite these conflicting results,
aluminium compounds are universally used as adjuvants for
the DPT (diphtheriapertussis-tetanus) vaccine. Hypersensitivity reactions
following their administration have been reported
which could be attributed to a number of factors, one of which is the
production of IgE along with IgG antibodies.
It was suggested that polymerased toxoids, such as the so-called
glutaraldehyde-detoxifled purified tetanus and diphtheria
toxins, should be used instead of aluminium compounds. They are used
combined with glutaraldehyde-inactivated pertussis
Calcium phosphate adjuvant has been used for simultaneous vaccination with
diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, BCG, yellow
fever, measles and hepatitis B vaccines and with allergen (Coursaget et
al., 1986). The advantage of this adjuvant has been
seen to be that it is a normal constituent of the body and is better
tolerated and absorbed than other adjuvants. It entraps
antigens very efficiently and allows slow release of the antigen.
Additionally, it elicits high amounts of IgG-type antibodies an
much less of IgE-type (reaginic) antibodies.
Micro-organisms in bacterial infections and the administration of vaccines
containing whole killed bacteria and some metabolic
products and components of various micro-organisms have been known to
elicit antibody response and act as
immunostimulants. The addition of such micro-organisms and substances into
vaccines augments the immune response to other
antigens in such vaccines.
The most commonly used micro-organisms, whole or their parts, are
Bordetella pertussis components, Corenybacterium
derived P40 component, cholera toxin and mycobacteria.
.B. pertussis components
The killed Bordetella pertussis has a strong adjuvant effect on the
diptheria and tetanus toxoids in the DPT vaccines.
However, there are a number of admitted and well-describe reactions to it,
such as convulsion, infantile spasms, epilepsy,
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), Reye syndrome, Guilain-Barre syndrome,
transverse myelitis and cerebral ataxia.
Needless to say, the causal link to it is often (even though not always)
vehemently disputed and generally considered
Paradoxically, in one case of shaken baby syndrome in which the baby
developed subdural and retinal haemorrhages from the
disease whooping cough, doctors accused the father of causing these
injuries and strenuously denied that the disease pertussis
can and does cause such haemorrhages-forgetting that this is the very
reason why pertussis vaccine was developed against
such potentially devastating disease in the first place. Such devastating
effects are caused by the pertussis toxin, the causative
agent of the disease (pertussis is a toxin-mediated disease), employed as
the active ingredient in all pertussis vaccines whether
whole-cell or acellular (Pittman, 1984).
Gupta et al. (1993) concluded that PT is too toxic to be administered to
humans, but chemically detoxified or genetically
inactivated PT may not exhibit the adjuvant effects comparable to the
P40 is a particulate fraction isolated from Corynebacterium granulosum,
composed of the cell wall peptidoglycan associate
with a glycoprotein. In animals, it displays a number of activities such as
stimulation of the reticulo-endothelial system,
enhancement of phagocytosis and activation of macrophages.
P40 abolishes drug-induced immunosuppression and increase non-specific
resistance to bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic
infections. It induces the formation of IL-2, tumour necrosis factor, and
interferon alpha and gamma (Bizzini et al., 1992). In
clinical trials, P40 was claimed to be efficacious in the treatment of
recurrent infections of the respiratory and genito-urinary
tracts. Allergens coupled to P40 have been said to be instrumental in
desensitising allergic patients without any side effects.
LPS is an adjuvant for both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. It augments
the immune response to both protein and
polysaccharide antigens. It is too toxic and pyrogenic, even in minute
doses, to be used as an adjuvant in humans.
.Mycobacterium and its components
Interestingly, Mycobacterium and its components, as originally formulated,
were too toxic to be used as adjuvants in humans.
However, the efforts to detoxify them resulted in the development of
N-acetyl muramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine, or muramyl
dipeptide (MDP). When given without antigen, it increased nonspecific
resistance against infections with bacteria, fungi,
parasites, viruses, and even against certain tumours (McLaughlin et al.,
1980). However, MDPs are potent pyrogens (maybe
that's why they may be effective against certain tumours-my comment) and
their action is not completely understood; hence
they are not acceptable for use in humans.
A major drawback with cholera toxin as a mucosal adjuvant is its intrinsic
Liposomes are particles made up of concentric lipid membranes containing
phospholipids and other lipids in a bilayer
configuration separated by aqueous compartments. They have been used
parenterally in people as carriers of biologically active
substances (Gregoriadis, 1976) and considered safe.
Immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs)
ISCOMs (DeVries et al., 1988; Morein et al., 199&, Lovgren : al., 1991)
represent an interesting approach to stimulation of
the humoral and cell-mediated immune response towards amphipathic antigens.
It is a relatively stable but
non-covalently-bound complex of saponin adjuvant Quil-A, cholesterol and
amphipathic antigen in a molar ratio of
approximately 1:1:1. The spectrum of viral capsid antigens and non-viral
amphipathic antigens of relevance for human
vaccination, incorporated into ISCOMs, comprises influenza, measles,
rabies, gp340 from EB-virus, gp120 from HIV,
Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanosoma cruzi.
ISCOMs have been shown to induce cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL). Following
oral administration, some types of CTLs were
found in mesenteric lymph nodes and in the spleen, and specific IgA
response could be induced.
ISCOMs have only been used in veterinary vaccines, partly due to their
haemolytic activity and some local reactions all
reflecting the detergent activity of the Quil-A molecule.
Other Adjuvants: Squalene
Squalene is an organic polymer with some antigenic epitopes which might be
shared with other organic polymers acting as
immunostimulators. It has been used in experimental vaccines since 1987
(Asa et aL, 2000) and it was used in the experiments
vaccines given to a great number of the participants in the Gulf War. These
included those who were not deployed but received
the same vaccines as those who were deployed.
The adjuvant activity of non-ionic block copolymer surfactants was
demonstrated when given with 2% squalene-in-water
emulsion. However, this adjuvant contributed to the cascade of reactions
called "Gulf War syndrome", documented in the
soldiers involved in the Gulf War. The symptoms they developed included
arthritis, fibromyalgia, lymphadenopathy, rashes,
photosensitive rashes, malar rashes, chronic fatigue, chronic headaches,
abnormal body hair loss, non-healing skin lesions,
aphthous ulcers, dizziness, weakness, memory loss, seizures, mood changes,
neuropsychiatric problems, anti-thyroid effects,
anaemia, elevated ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate), systemic lupus
erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, ALS (amyotrophic
lateral sclerosis), Raynaud's phenomenon, Sjorgren's syndrome, chronic
diarrhoea, night sweats and low-grade fevers.
This long list of reactions shows just how much damage is done by vaccines,
particularly when potentiated by powerful
"immunoenhancers" such as squalene and other adjuvants. Interestingly,
vaccinators as a rule consider such problems as
mysterious and/or coincidental with vaccines. Since the administration of a
multitude of vaccines to the participants (and
prospective participants) in the Gulf War is well-documented (in fact,
veterans claim they were given many more than were
even recorded), this list of observed reactions further incriminates the
vaccines as causing such problems.
ADVERSE EFFECTS OF ADJUVANTS IN VACCINES by Viera Scheibner (Part 2)
ADVERSE EFFECTS OF ADJUVANTS IN VACCINES (part 2)
Viera Scheibner Ph.D.
Nexus Feb 2001 (Vol 8, Number 2)
IMMUNOLOGY PRINCIPLES: ANTIBODY RESPONSE
To explain the action of adjuvants, we should look into immunology. The
theory of vaccine efficacy is based on the ability of
vaccines to evoke the formation of antibodies. This is of varying efficacy,
depending on the nature of the antigen(s) and the
amount of antigenic substance administered.
However, the mechanisms for the diversity of immune reactions are complex,
and to this day are not quite known and
understood. There are numerous theories, the favoured one being antibody
response as the sign of immunisation (acquiring
Specific immunity to a particular disease is generally considered to be the
result of two kinds of activity: the humoral antibody
and the cellular sensitivity.
The ability to form antibodies develops partly in utero and partly after
birth in the neonatal period. In either case,
immunological competence-the ability to respond immunologically to an
antigenic stimulus-appears to originate with the
The thymus initially consists largely of primitive cellular elements which
become peripheralised to the lymph nodes and spleen.
These cells give rise to lymphoid cells, resulting in the development of
immunological competence. The thymus may also exert a
second activity in producing a hormqne-lilce substance which is essential
for the maturation of immunological competence in
lymphoid cells. Such maturation also takes place by contact with thymus
cells in the thymus.
Stimulation of the organism by antigen results in proliferation of cells of
the lymphoid series accompanied by the formation of
immunocytes, and this leads to the antibody production. Certain lymphocytes
and possibly reticulum cells may be transformed
into immunoblasts, which develop into immunologically active ("sensitised")
lymphocytes and plasmocytes (plasma cells).
Antibody formation is connected with plasma cells, while cellular immunity
reactions are mainly lymphocytic.
None of the theories for antibody formation comprehends all the biological
and chemical data now available. However, several
principal theories have been considered at length.
The so-called instructive theory holds that the antigen is brought to the
locus of antibody synthesis and there imposes in some
way the synthesis of the specific antibody with reactive sites which are
complementary to the antigen.
The clonal selection theory, evolved by Burnett (1960), presupposes that
the information requisite to the synthesis of the
antibody is part of the genetics. While the body develops a wide range of
clones of cells necessary to cover all antigenic
determinants by random mutation during early embryonic life, those clones
which are capable of reacting with antigens of the
body ("self') are destroyed, leaving only those cells which are not
oriented to self ("non-self'). Upon stimulation by a foreign
antigen, the clones of the cells corresponding to the particular foreign
antigen are stimulated to proliferate and to produce the
Other researchers demonstrated that there are at least four different
antigens formed by descendants of a single cloned cell. By
this mechanism, the information for antibody synthesis is contained in the
genetic material of each cell (DNA) but is normally
repressed. The antigen then assumes the role of a de-repressor and
initiates (provokes) the RNA synthesis for a particular
messenger, resulting in the corresponding antibody production. The antigen
would instruct the genetically predisposed capability
of multipotential cells as to which antibody to produce and might also
command the cells to proliferate, resulting in clones of
properly instructed cells.
There are two possible mechanisms for the elimination of antibodies against
self: immunological nonresponsiveness and
immunological paralysis. There are several states of immunological
nonresponsiveness; one is illustrated by the exposure of a
foetus or newborn to an antigen prior to the development of its ability to
recognise the antigen as non-self (immunological
incompetence). Immunological paralysis results from the injection of a very
large amount of antigen into immunologically
competent individuals. Nonspecific immunological suppression by cortisone,
ACTH, nitrogen mustards and irradiation is also
Cellular sensitivity, also known as delayed or cellular hypersensitivity,
depends on the development of immunologically
reactive or "sensitive" lymphocytes and possibly other cells which react
with the corresponding antigen to give a typical
delayed-type reaction after a period of several hours, days or even weeks.
Cellular hypersensitivity depends on the original antigenic stimulation and
a latent period, and is specific in its response.
Delayed-type hypersensitivity is characteristic of the body's response to
various infectious agents such as viruses, bacteria,
fungi, spirochetes and parasites. It is also characteristic of the body's
response to various chemicals, such as mercury,
endotoxins, antibiotics, various drugs and many other substances foreign to
The induction of a hypersensitivity reaction requires the presence in the
tissues of the whole organism or certain derivatives of it,
in addition to the specific antigen such as a lipid in addition to tubercle
bacillus protein. Sensitisation to a non-infectious
substance must be mediated through the skin or mucuous membranes which
probably provide further necessary co-factors.
A delayed hypersensitivity reaction may be enhanced experimentally by the
employment of the antigen in a mineral oil adjuvant
with added Mycobacterium tuberculosis or by injection of the antigen
directly into the lymphatics. The delayed
hypersensitivity response is accompanied by mild to severe inflammation
which may cause cell injury and necrosis. The
inflammatory response which occurs in delayed-type hypersensitivity may not
be protective, and in many instances
may even be harmful (e.g., rejection of grafts is directly linked to
IMMUNOPATHOLOGY OF HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS:
This is the antibody-type reaction that is a secondary consequence to the
beneficial effect of the combination of an antibody
with its antigen.
This reaction results from the precipitative union of a large amount of
antigen with a highly reactive antibody in the blood
vessels, and leads to vascular damage. The cascade of events includes
spastic contraction of the arterioles, endothelial damage,
formation of leukocyte thrombi, exudation of fluid and blood cells into the
tissues, and sometimes ischemic necrosis. Periarteritis
nodosa results from a similar antigen-antibody reaction and is
characterised by inflammation of the smaller arteries and
periarterial structures. it is accompanied by proliferation of the intima
and two types of occlusion: (a) by proliferation or
thrombosis; or (b) by the formation of nodules containing neutrophils and
Injection of antigen and its combination with antibody may cause release
from the cells (especially mast-cell fixed basophils) of
physiologically active substances such as histamine, serotonin,
acetyicholine, slow-reacting substances (SRS) and heparin. They
act on smooth muscle and blood vessels and cause anaphylactic
(hypersensitivity) shock, asthma attack, allergic oedema,
rhinitis or hay fever, and accumulation of fluid in the joints.
Atopy is caused by the union of antigen-usually pollens, dust, milk, wheat
and animal danders-with a peculiar type of
antibody (reagin). This reaction is relatively heat-labile and cannot be
demonstrated by in vitro procedure. It has a special
affinity for the skin and for familial predisposition to the disease. The
reaction is nevertheless similar to other immediate-type
sensitivities, with the release of histamine and its manifestation
principally as asthma (breathing paralysis), hay fever, urticaria,
angioedema and infantile eczema.
The typical pathology of delayed hypersensitivity due to infectious agents
involves perivascular infiltration of lymphocytes and
histiocytes with the destruction of the antigen-containing parenchyma in
the infiltrated area. The visual manifestations may vary
from slight erythema and oedema to a violent reaction with progressive
tissue destruction and necrosis. Local reactions include
papular rose spots of typhoid fever, meningitis and a variety of infectious
diseases, and contact sensitivities to plant and
chemical substances manifesting as erythema, followed by papule and vesicle
formation with resultant tissue damage and
desquamation. Systemic reactions may accompany severe local reactions or
may result from inhalation of the allergenic
Humoral antibodies do not seem to play a role in delayed hypersensitivity
reaction. The reactivity is transferred only by cells,
presumably sensitised lymphocytes, and it is unlikely that histamine or
other physiologically active substances play a role in the
reaction. The reaction extends to any or all tissues where the offending
antigen may occur.
This is the result of an immunological reaction of a member of the same
species to the tissue of another member of the same
species. A blood transfusion reaction in a person given an incompatible
blood type is a typical example. Another example is
erythroblastosis fetalis, which results from the transfer of antibodies
against the red blood cells of the foetus to the foetal
circulation. Homograft rejection of tissues or organs between nonisologous
members of a species is also immunologically
Immunological Disease Resulting from Adsorption of Foreign Substances
Under certain circumstances, foreign substances such as medications may
combine with cells to render them antigenic.
Subsequent exposure to such a foreign substance results in lytic,
agglutinative or other types of cell-destructive activity. Such a
reaction may involve red blood cells (drug-induced anaemias), platelets
(drug-induced thrombocytopemc purpura), and
leukocytosis (drug-induced agranulocytosis).
Bacteria or viruses may also alter cell surfaces by coating or by unmasking
antigens through enzymatic activity which may
render them vulnerable to immunological destruction.
Under certain circumstances, the body may respond immunologically to its
own components or to intrinsic substances which
are related antigenically to the host's own tissues. The circulating
antibody or sensitised cells which are produced are then
active in causing cellular injury to the tissues or organs of the body
which bear the corresponding antigen.
Waksman (1962) proposed several mecnamsms of autoimmunisation, such as:
1.Vaccination with organ-specific antigens which are isolated from the
lymphatic channels and bloodstream and are not
recognised as self when brought into contact with the immunologic process.
They are represented in the central and peripheral
nervous systems, lens, uvea, testes, thyroid (thyroglobulin), kidneys and
2.Vaccination against constituents of tissues which have been altered
antigenetically by various factors. These include
myocardial infarction, X-irradiation, enzymatic or other chemical
alteration, and changes induced by infectious disease agents or
by drugs. Erythrocytes, platelets and leucocytes are the most affected
cells. Various organs may also be affected.
3.Vaccination with heterologous antigens which are sufficiently different
to permit an immunological response but sufficiently
alike to react with autologous antigens.
4.Alteration of the immunological apparatus so as to result in the failure
of recognition of self. This occurs in neoplasia of the
lymphatic system and in experimental grafting of immunologically competent
heterologous lymphatic tissues under conditions
which suppress the host's response to the graft and give rise to the
wasting "runt disease" or "homologous disease".
5.Possible hereditary or other immunological abnormality. This is
represented by a hyper-reactivity to antigens or other
aberrations without apparent antigenic stimulation. Such mechanisms might
be related to certain forms of the "collagen
diseases", such as systemic lupus erythematosus in which there is an
antibody against a diversity of antigens.
6.Experimentally, Freund's mineral oil adjuvant (usually with added
mycobacteria) and certain bacteria or bacterial toxins may
so alter the host as to bring about a ready response to unaltered normal
homologous tissue. These "experimental autoallergies"
include a wide variety of organs and tissues, and are now being employed as
model systems for investigation of autoimmune
Both humoral antibody and sensitised cells may function in autoimmune
disease. Auto-antibodies seem to be involved in
reactions with cells which are easily accessible, such as the formed
elements of the blood (in haemolytic anaemia, leucopeni
thrombocytopenia), vascular endothelium, vascular basement membrane
including the glomerulus (in acute glomerulonephritis
and ascites cells (neoplastic immunity).
Production of lesions in the solid vascularised tissues appears to depend
on delayed hypersensitivity reactions with sensitised
lymphoid cells (such as in allergic encephalomyeitis, thyroiditis, subacute
and chronic glomerulonephritis, orchitis, adrenalitis and
many other diseases).
It is quite obvious now that the same autoimmune mechanisms are responsible
for the same diseases in human beings and that
the extent of such damage is enormous and keeps increasing with more and
more vaccines added to to "recommended"
Indeed, vaccines such as the pertussis vaccine are actually used to induce
autoimmune diseases in laboratory animals, the best
and most publicised example being the so-called experimental allergic
encephalomyelitis (EAE). When, as expected, these
unfortunate animals develop EAE from the pertussis vaccine, the causal link
is never disputed; yet when babies after vaccination
with the same vaccines develop the same symptoms of EAE as the laboratory
animals, the causal link to the administered
vaccine is always disputed and usually considered "coincidental". Lately,
innocent parents and other carers have been accused
of causing the symptoms of vaccine darn age by allegedly shaking their
Systemic lupus erythematosus is one of the innumerable recognised side
effects of a number of vaccinations. One of the best
papers (if not the best on this is by Ayvazian and Badger (1948), and it
has not lost any of its punch and relevance since it was
published. They describe three cases of nurses who were literally
vaccinated to death. The authors surveyed a group of 750
nurses who trained at a large municipal hospital between 1932 and 1946, and
detailed the cases of three nurses who were
vaccinated with a multitude of vaccines over a period of time and developed
and succumbed to disseminated lupus
Typically, these nurses were given the following tests and vaccines in
short succession: the Schick test; three days later, the
Dick test; seven days later, typhoid-paratyphoid vaccine; seven days later,
another typhoid-paratyphoid vaccine (a double
dose); seven days later, the third typhoid-paratyphoid vaccine; and seven
days later, the fourth typhoid-paratyphoid vaccine.
Every time, the recipient developed local erythema and/or fever and
malaise, but it did not deter the doctor from administering
yet another series of vaccines, starting only 14 days after the first lot
of tests and typhoid-paratyphoid vaccines.
This time, after all these injections, one of the trainee nurses was given
her first injection of scarlet fever streptococcus toxin with
"no ill results". One week later, she was given the second injection of
streptococcus toxin, after which she developed joint pains
and fever. She did not report these reactions to the health office. Nine
days later, she returned and received the third injection
of a fourfold dose of streptococcus, after which she developed severe
arthralgia in the fingers and knees and a sore throat.
She was hospitalised for five days and discharged with the diagnosis
"Dick-toxin reaction". Only five days later her inoculations
were continued, first in lower and then in gradually increasing doses so
that the series included a total of 10 instead of the usual
seven injections. Epinephrine was administered with each of these
injections of streptococcus toxin and toxin-antitoxin.
Two months after the last lot, the trainee nurse was re-admitted to the
hospital with swelling and pain of the ankles and toes and
tenderness of the joints of both hands, which had been constant since the
first Dick test five months earlier. The diagnosis was
"rheumatic arthritis". She was given aspirin, but two weeks later the pain
came back and she developed chills and fever, sore
throat and cough. One month later, the trainee nurse was re-admitted to
hospital for two weeks, and during this admission a
streptococcus vaccine was started in small doses, but because of her severe
reaction "further vaccines were refused". The
diagnosis after this admission was "rheumatoid arthritis and infectious
mononucleosis". Four months later, the trainee nurse
noticed skin eruptions over her nose and both cheeks, and her saliva became
foul. The skin and cheeks, upper lips and the
bridge of the nose were covered with purplish red, mottled and indurated
rash eruptions. Two months later, the eruptions
spread over much of the body. A year later, the trainee nurse died, but not
before developing severe symptoms of high fever,
tachycardia, diarrhoea and showing abnormal blood tests.
It was not enough that this unfortunate trainee nurse died; there were
another two cases reported, almost identical to the first
case. We shall never know bow many of the remaining 747 trainee nurses
developed less lethal, but still health-incanacitating.
If someone said that this type of "medical treatment' had been given to the
inmates of the Nazi concentration camps, I would
not be surprised. However, this type of "medical treatment" was and is
being given with impunity to millions of babies, children,
teenagers and adults in so-called free and democratic countries as well as
in the Third World. Meanwhile, the health authorities
refuse to accept that vaccines cause such reactions and even deaths.
VACCINATION: A SAFETY WARNING
The conclusions which follow the study of relevant medical and
immunological literature dealing with vaccines and the adjuvants
used in vaccines is that the absolute safety of these substances can never
be guaranteed. According to Gupta et al. (1993), the
toxicity of adjuvants can be ascribed in part to the unintended stimulation
of various mechanisms of the immune response.
That's why the safety and adjuvancy must be balanced to get the maximum
immune stimulation with minimum side effects.
My conclusion is that such balance is impossible to achieve, even if we
fully understood the immune system and the full
spectrum of deleterious effects of foreign antigens and other toxic
substances such as vaccine and drug adjuvants and
medications on the immune system of humans, and particularly on the
immature immune system of babies and small children.
Injecting any foreign substance straight into the bloodstream will only
cause anaphylactic (sensitisation) reactions. Nature, over
thousands and thousands of years, has developed effective immune responses;
yet man, without respect for nature,
demonstrably causes more harm than good.
Vaccination procedures are a highly politically motivated non-science,
whose practitioners are only interested in injecting
multitudes of vaccines without much interest or care as to their effects.
Data collection on reactions to vaccines is only paid lip
service, and the obvious ineffectiveness of vaccines to prevent diseases is
The fact that natural infectious diseases have beneficial effect on the
maturation and development of the immune system is
ignored or deliberately suppressed.
Consequently, parents of small children and any potential recipients of
vaccines and any orthodox medications should be wary
of any member of the medical establishment (which is little more than a
highly politicised business system) extolling the
non-existent virtues of vaccination. Even though Australian law requires
doctors to warn patients about all side-effects of all
medications and procedures of a material nature, whether the patient asks
or not, doctors as a rule do not uphold this important
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