Scheibner V. Shaken Baby Syndrome on Shaky Ground. [Journal Article]
Journal of Australasian College of Nutritional and Environmental
Medicine Vol. 20 No. 2; 2001 August
An epidemic of accusations against parents and baby sitters of shaken
baby syndrome is sweeping the developed world. The United States and the
United Kingdom are in the forefront of such questionable practice. Brain
(mainly subdural, less often subarachnoid) and retinal haemorrhages, retinal
detachments, and rib and other bone 'fractures' are considered pathognomic.
However, the reality of these injuries is very different and well documented:
the vast majority occur after the administration of childhood vaccines
and a minority of cases are due to documented birth injuries and pre-eclamptic
and eclamptic states of the mothers.
Evidence that vaccines cause brain and retinal haemorrhages and increased
fragility of bones, has been published in refereed medical journals. That
this has been to a great extent due to the depletion of vitamin C reserves
resulting in acute scurvy, has also been published. I refer to such articles
and demonstrate that there is a viable differential diagnosis available
explaining the observed injuries in what is called the Shaken Baby Syndrome
(SBS) as non-traumatic injuries, and that the diagnosis of SBS is an artifactual
incorrect evaluation of the cause of such injuries; it has resulted in
unspeakable injustices and suffering for the affected individuals and their
families, and deprived the surviving babies of their paternal care by replacing
it with foster care. It does not reflect well on the justice and medical
systems in the developed world which are, sadly, characterised by blindness
to the most obvious and victimisation of the innocent. Those who inject
babies with great numbers of vaccines within short periods of time in the
first months of life, often ignoring the observed serious reactions to
the previous lots of vaccines, are not only the accusers of innocent carers,
but are not prosecuted or brought to justice; quite to the contrary, they
continue injecting babies with toxic cocktails of vaccines and creating
further innumerable cases of grievous bodily harm and death.
A great number of parents and other caregivers are being accused of shaking
their small babies and causing grievous bodily harm and death. Most USA,
but also other countries', hospitals have SBS squads who get hold of
distraught caregivers rushing their seriously ill or dying babies to get
help literally on entering the emergency units, often before any tests are
done. In Australia, the affected babies are taken away from their parents
who are not always charged with any criminal offense, but have a hard time
to prove that they did not harm their babies and have difficulty getting
them back into their Iawful custody.
Nobody seems to listen to the caregivers' stories, which are remarkably
similar in the lack of evidence of any trauma and in that they are at a
loss to understand what happened to their precious babies. Even though the
administration of vaccines is recorded, their possible role in the observed
injuries is not considered or is deliberately ignored. The distraught
caregivers are, as a rule, pressured into admitting that they shook their
babies and some may 'confess' under duress or under a promise of leniency.
It is only thanks to the Internet that a great number of caregivers
subsequently learn that the vast majority of the affected babies developed
their symptoms after and not before they were subjected to the routine
The most worrying element in this misplaced eagerness to 'protect' babies
against abuse, is the ignorance of the medical 'experts' who adamantly, and
under oath in court, will testify that there is no evidence (published or
otherwise) or "no reputable evidence" that the observed injuries,
considered pathognomic of SBS, have other, viable, non-traumatic, causes.
In our joint experience, such experts adamantly reject any suggestion that
the administered vaccines had anything to do with the observed injuries.
I dare not say that eagerness to deliberately victimize caregivers is the
motive in their unforgivable behavior, even though this phenomenon has been
described in refereed medical journals. Kirschner and Stein (9) warned
about mistaken diagnoses of child abuse based on the failure of treating
physicians to make a correct diagnosis and that they mistake
life-threatening illness or postmortem artifacts for inflicted injury. They
wrote "Not only lack of experience with severe childhood illness and death
but also an attitude of suspicion and/or hostility probably contributed to
these misdiagnoses". (9)
I have also witnessed the 'experts' admitting that, of course, vaccines are
not 100% safe or effective and can cause injuries, but not in the case
There are a number of benchmark articles referred to by the proponents of
the SBS, Caffey's 1972 article (2) being the most quoted. Since other
authors essentially repeat what was published by Caffey, I shall only
elaborate on the data contained in the above publication of Caffey's.
ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF THE PUBLISHED DATA
Caffey (1) originally described six infants, 13 months or younger, with the
combination of subdural haematomas and what he considered characteristic
"bone lesions of battering". In 1972, Caffey talked about the theory and
practice of shaking infants as part of his Abraham Jacobi Awards Address.
He ascertained that during the last 25 years substantial evidence, direct
and circumstantial, "has gradually accumulated suggesting that the
whiplash-shaking and jerking of abused infants are common causes of the
skeletal as well as the cerebrovascular lesions". He also wrote that
"potentially pathogenic whiplash shaking is commonly practiced in a wide
variety of ways, under a wide variety of circumstances, by a wide variety
of persons. for a wide variety of reasons."
He considered that the most common motive for such action was an attempt to
correct minor misbehavior. However, he also wrote that the line of
demarcation between pathogenic and nonpathogenic shaking is often vague. He
maintained that the interpretations of such injuries must be done from the
radiographic changes exclusively due to the lack of systematic studies of
either surgical exploration or necropsy.
Metaphyseal avulsions in the form of small fragments of cortical bone torn
off the external edge of the cortical wall at the metaphyseal levels where
the periosteum is most tightly bound down to the cortex were most common.
In most cases they appeared to be small chunks of calcified cartilage which
have been broken off the edges of the provisional zones of calcification at
or near the sites of the attachments of the articular capsules. Bones on
both the proximal and distal sides of a single joint were affected,
especially at the knee.
Then, in 1972 (2) Caffey proceeded to speculate that, "all of these
metaphyseal avulsions appeared to result from indirect traction, shearing,
acceleration-deceleration stresses on the periosteum and articular
capsules, rather than direct, impact stresses such as smashing blows an the
bone itself." Then, without further evidence, he called these findings
"traumatic involucra", which commonly accompany the metaphyseal avulsions
and involve the same terminal segment of the same shaft. He thought that
such injuries develop due to traction-rapture of the abundant normal
perforating blood vessels, which occur between the periosteum and the
medullary cavity and which are severed at the junction of the internal edge
of the periosteum with the external edge of the cortex. The accumulated
blood then lifts the periosteum off the wall for variable distances and
forms subperiosteal haematomas of variable sizes and shapes.
The position of such haematomas varies from either being symmetrical in
analogous bones, or asymmetrical, affecting bones in one arm or leg only or
sometimes occurring only on the thighs and shanks. Frequently they involve
bones on both the distal and proximal sides of a single joint, especially
the knees. First they appear as masses of water density superimposed on the
shaft, but after four to ten days, a thin opaque shell of new fibrous bone
forms around the external edge of the haematoma. The entrapped blood then
Importantly, Caffey quoted several observers who noted associated diffuse
sclerosis of the shafts of some of the affected bones of some 'abused'
infants. Importantly, he wrote that some radiologists described them as
excessively fragile, brittle chalk-like bones. He then continued:
"In recent biopsies, however, the microscopic examination disclosed the
lamellae to be laid down in an irregular woven pattern. This, in my
opinion, indicates that the sclerosis is caused by excessive newly-formed
primitive fibrous or woven bone which forms regularly under the periosteum
following traumatic subperiosteal edema or bleeding or both. Traumatic
thickenings of the external subperiosteal edge of the cortical wall are the
cause of the sclerosis. The epiphyseal ossification centers and round bones
are probably stronger than normal shafts. Traumatic metaphyseal cupping is
due to traumatic obstructive injury to the epiphyseal arterioles in the
neighboring cartilage plate; and the metaphyseal 'loop' deformities are due
to stretching and extension of the traumatic involucra terminally. Both of
these lesions are best explained on the causal basis of the grabbing,
squeezing the extremities by the assailant's hands, and whiplash-shaking
the infant's head". (2)
It is obvious from these quotations, that Caffey was preoccupied with
presumed but unsubstantiated, let alone proved, traumatic origin of such
injuries and ignored the available evidence to the contrary.
Indeed, Caffey's contemporary, Hiller, published a very important article
in 1972 ("Battered Or Not-A Reappraisal Of Metaphyseal Fragility") (6) in
which he demonstrated that the 'typical' epiphyseal plate fractures-usually
involving a flake of metaphysis, with or without displacement of the
epiphysis, and considered virtually diagnostic of battering-are something
else: a sign of acute scurvy. Hiller wrote that such fractures often
produce periosteal stripping up of the shafts of the bones, with added
subperiosteal haematoma formation, which later shows extensive
Hiller also mentioned that this type of fracture was originally described
by Caffey in 1946, who noted the occurrence of such fractures in infants
with subdural haematomas, but drew no conclusion at that time. Indeed,
Caffey at that time even coined the term "metaphyseal fragility" and for a
long time afterwards infants presenting with these types of bone fractures
were fully investigated to exclude blood dyscrasias, clotting abnormalities
and abnormalities of calcium metabolism. However, nothing ever came of
these investigations and subsequent authors simply accepted such fractures
as being the result of inflicted trauma. By 1968, Silverman published that
such bizarre fractures should now be accepted generally as strong evidence
Hiller maintained his reservations about the validity of such hypothesis.
He had many reasons for such hesitation:
1.-The inability on many occasions to elicit, even by most careful and
thorough cross-questioning, any evidence of maltreatment (indeed one of
such infants was a doctor's son;
2.-The type of trauma (when any had occurred) reported by proponents of the
SBS was so minimal, that it could occur in a high percentage of normal home
environments, and we should definitely see more of it; in actual fact, this
did not occur;
3.-In a number of infants with multiple epiphyseal plate fractures, all
bones, including those in no way involved with the fractures, show a dense
chalky appearance on the roentgenogram, which, in fact suggests a degree of
Both Caffey and Silverman' recorded these findings but did not draw the
correct conclusion from them.
4.-Hiller drew attention to the occurrence of epiphyseal plate fractures on
both sides of a joint-often appearing at the same time on roentgenograms
and therefore almost certainly being sustained at the same time. If any
twisting or torsion had occurred, as Caffey and his followers hypothesized,
such a fracture might occur at one side of the joint, but "how could it
possibly occur at both sides?", asks Hiller.
Hiller then discussed the occurrence of other fractures accompanying the
above typical fractures of scurvy, such as multiple rib fractures and skull
vault fractures. He wrote that the occurrence on more than one occasion of
a fracture of the acromion and of spinous processes, causes some difficulty
in accepting the trauma-alone theory. Also, greenstick fractures of a
number of metatarsals in a 4 month-old infant are difficult to explain as
being caused by inflicted trauma.
Indeed, Hiller instigated a two year retrospective study at the Royal
Children's' Hospital, Melbourne, of all long bone fractures seen in infants
and children under the age of 3 years, in whom no stigmata of battering
were found. The study included three groups of children: those with no
known injury, those who sustained severe falls from heights or had been
involved in automobile accidents, and those who had less severe falls,
being dropped or having been subjected to the playful actions of parents.
The results showed that out of a total of 145 fractures reviewed, not one
was of the epiphyseal plate type. They were invariably greenstick, oblique
or spinal shaft fractures.
At the same time, it was decided to make a 12 month survey at the Royal
Children's' Hospital, Melbourne, of all children and infants suspected to
have been battered, and to ascertain how many of these demonstrated the
typical eiphyseal plate fractures. Out of the total of 25 children, 5 were
found to have these typical fractures. All 5 showed the chalky bone
structure to a greater or a lesser extent and all showed multiple fractures
not only of the epiphyseal plates, but also shaft fractures, and in one
case, a linear skull fracture. In 2 of the 5 patients a bone biopsy was
performed and showed an abnormal trabecular structure. "The lamellae were
found to be laid down in an irregular woven pattern, i.e. the collagen
framework showed a crisscross basket weave of bundles". Hiller stated that
this irregular collagen pattern resembled that of immature woven bone, and
contrasted with normal controls which showed a more regular lamellar
Long before both Caffey and Hiller, Hess published a book, "Scurvy, Past
and Present" (7), in which he elaborated on many typical signs of scurvy
involving many types of haemorrhages which may take place in any organ and
vary from small petechiae to very extensive extravasations. The hair
follicles and sweat glands are particularly susceptible to such bleeding as
some authors noticed in inmates of French prisons.
Relatively small trauma may result in bleeding into the skin, the lower
extremities being the commonest sites, between the knee and ankle, and in
children the inner aspect of the thighs due to trauma of the nappies. The
deeper haemorrhages may be very extensive and tend to follow the
connective-tissue strata. The blood surrounds the muscle fibers, which
appear quite intact. The neighboring blood vessels are congested and may
contain thrombi, both venous and arterial. Such thrombi are found also in
areas where extravasation has not taken place, and conversely, haemorrhages
occur where no thrombi are demonstrable. Brownish pigment (no doubt
haemosiderin, our comment) is frequently found in the neighborhood of the
In the healing areas a marked formation of the scar tissue will be found.
Bizarre forms of haemorrhage may occur in the right lower abdomen and in
the region of the transverse colon. Certain organs are more and others less
predisposed to bleeding. Haemorrhages are commonly seen in the adrenals,
(mainly the medullary portion), bladder and urethra. Haemorrhages may occur
into the brain substance, into the cord or the membranes surrounding them.
What Hess called "pachymeningitis haemorrhagica interna" has been described
frequently, and may give rise to the symptoms of meningitis. The optic
nerve and peripheral nerves may be affected, too.
With modern technology, such haemorrhages are now identified as subdural or
subarachnoid and can be described in great detail. Even though they may
occur separately from brain haemorrhages, retinal haemorihages occur
frequently when the brain haemorrhages are present because of the close
anatomical connection between the eyes and the brain.
Bones are affected by subperiosteal haemorrhages, especially in the distal
end of the femur or of the tibia, which may be evident and surrounded by
unusually large calluses. The blood may extend along the long bones under
the periosteum. The clot forms, readily demonstrating that the nature of
the haemorrhage is not a defect in coagulation and the callus constitutes
more or less firm connective tissue containing fibrin, pigment and
granulation tissue. Epiphyses may be entirely separated from the bones. In
some cases the cartilage is telescoped into the crushed end of the bone.
Typically, 'beading' of the ribs occurs, the counterpart of the 'rhachitic
rosary'. There may be fractures at the costochondral junctions, or a
separation of the cartilage from the sternum, as described by Lind and many
others in soldiers suffering scurvy.
The subperiosteal haemorrhage has long been recognized as a lesion
characteristic of scurvy and may involve almost any of the bones, such as
scapula, cranial vault, orbital plate of the frontal bone, ribs etc. The
most frequent sites of fracture or separation in the epiphysis is the lower
end of the femur. On sectioning the bones longitudinally, the cortex is
noted to be exceedingly thin (a mere shell) and very brittle. The
trabeculae are so thin and reduced in number that the bone has become a
very fragile structure. The marrow is no longer deep red at the ends of the
long bones, but yellowish, frequently presenting a patchy appearance. It
has a gelatinous consistency. The bone structure is irregular with osseous
trabeculae few in number and those remaining are slender and irregular and
frequently appear as isolated islets. The line of junction with the
cartilage becomes zigzag.
Retinal haemorrhages and pallor of the optic disc, found in SBS, were also
considered pathognomic of scurvy.
Enlargement of the heart was cited by Hess (7) as one of the symptoms of
acute scurvy. Pericarditis, hydrothorax, pleurisy with effusion, diarrhea,
bleeding into the gums and pneumonia are common complications of scurvy.
In babies, the signs of scurvy may be overlooked even though it is
indicated by a large number of symptoms such as irritability, tachycardia
and tachypnea, slight weight gain, pale complexion and slight edema of the
eyelids and periorbital area. Petechial haemorrhages on the face, around
the eyes and on upper torso are one of the typical signs of scurvy in
infants. In this connection, it is appropriate to mention petechial
haemorrhages into the thymus, pericardium, lungs, and other organs as the
most typical (and often only) pathology found in the babies who die
suddenly (SIDS). These may well be signs of acute scurvy precipitated by
the administration of a multitude of vaccines containing a number of
toxins. The petechiae were well-described in 1978 by Hans Selye (16) (and
elsewhere), as part of the pathology of his non-specific stress syndrome
(or general adaptation syndrome) in rats injected with formaldehyde, and
also in 1959 by Pekarek and Rezabek in rats after the administration of the
DPT vaccines. (11)
All examples of what Caffey considered "typical battered baby" fractures
and periosteal bleedings in his papers, are in fact typical scurvy
fractures and bleedings.
These days, people generally think that nobody suffers scurvy, which used
to be identified with long sea voyages during which the sailors were
deprived of any fresh fruit and vegetables. The reality is far from such
idealized perceptions. Most people probably have only marginal reserves of
vitamin C and this applies particularly to babies and small children.
Administration of toxic vaccines depletes the marginal vitamin C reserves
very quickly and this results in acute scurvy.
Vaccines of the kind given to babies as early as at birth and then one
month later (hepatitis B vaccine) and DPT, Polio and Hib at 6 to 8 weeks of
age, contain a number of toxins. The DPT (three in one vaccine), being the
toxoid vaccine, contains pertussis, diphtheria and tetanus toxins which are
treated with formaldehyde to decrease their toxicity. However, all of these
treated toxins (toxoids) have the ability to revert back to their original
toxicity by passage in the injected individuals, as demonstrated by Samore
and Siber. (13) These toxins are capable of causing, and they demonstrably
cause, serious immunological, vascular and metabolic injuries, of which
scurvy is one of many documented mechanisms.
Weiss and Hewlett (17) elaborated on virulence factors of Bordetella
pertussis, the causative organism in the disease pertussis and the active
ingredient in all pertussis vaccine, whether the whole-cell or acellular.
They enumerated the following virulence factors of Bordetella pertussis:
agglutinogens, adenylate cyclase toxin, dermonecrotic toxin, filamentous
haemagglutinin, haemolysin, lipopolysaccharide, pertussis toxin and
tracheal cytotoxin. Importantly, dermonecrotic toxin causes necrotic
lesions and elicits vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels, followed
by ischemia, diapedesis of leucocytes and petechial haemorrhage. The
lipopolysaceharide is pyrogenic and is comparable to endotoxin from
Salmonella or Eseherichia coli in the Limulus amaebocyte lysate essay and
in promoting hypersensitivity to histamine.
Pertussis toxin is the most extensively studied product of B. pertussis,
and is undoubtedly a major virulence factor. It is known under a number of
names such as histamine-sensitizing factor, lymphocytosis-promoting factor,
islet-activating protein and pertussigen. Pertussis toxin is not cytolytic
but rather alters cellular responsiveness to regulatory molecules. It
blocks the stimulation of phosphatyl inositol hydrolysis, arachidonate
release, and calcium mobilization by some mediator cells, such as immune
effector cells, including neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, basophils,
bone marrow stem cells, and natural killer lymphocytes. This explains the
range of reactions to the pertussis vaccines.
Other vaccines contain toxins, such as the diphtheria and tetanus vaccines,
which may and do cause injuries of the kind seen in the SBS babies.
However, even vaccines which are not toxin-based, such as the hepatitis B
vaccine, cause reactions seen in the SBS babies, particularly retinal
haemorrhages (Devin et al. (3)). Perhaps the most important effect of such
toxins is arteritis affecting medium and small arteries, particularly at
the point of bifurcation and branching. Segmental inflammation,
infiltration with fibrinoid and necrosis of the blood vessel lining and
walls leads to diminished blood flow to the areas normally supplied by
these arteries (Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary, 1981).
There is another aspect to the observed brain and retinal haemorrhages in a
great number of particularly newborn babies: the iatrogenic effect of
inductions. Schoenfeld et al. (1985) studied the retinal haemorrhages
following labor induced by oxytocin or dinoprostone. They observed retinal
haemorrhages in 40% of neonates in the dinoprostone treatment group
compared with 28% in the oxytocin group. They concluded that accumulation
of prostaglandins in the fetal circulation may be responsible for the
haemorrhages. They wrote that other organ systems must be carefully
examined in the neonates to detect other possible untoward effects.
Considering that large numbers of neonates are now not only induced, but
are also injected with hepatitis b vaccine within hours or a few days of
birth, it is not surprising that so many of them are diagnosed with
extensive brain and retinal haemorrhages; the haemorrhagic birth injuries
caused by the overload of prostaglandins used to induce or speed up almost
every birth, are aggravated by the vasculopathic toxic effect of these
vaccines. The haemorrhages have hardly had the time to start healing and
the next dose of multiple vaccines is administered at 6 to 8 weeks of age.
Tragically, the presence of haemosiderin indicating old haemorrhages is not
appropriately correlated with the vaccine administration, but is
incorrectly used as further 'evidence' that the child was assaulted
repeatedly. Gilliland et al. warned that such interpretation represents an
opportunity for medico-legal confusion and miscarriage of justice. (5)
Leadbeater et al. (10), in a letter to the editor of BMJ (British Medical
Journal), commenting on Carty and Rateliffe's article-"The Shaken Infant
Syndrome" (18)-warned about the unproven concept of the SBS as a result of
violent shaking and quoted Duhaime et al. (4) who raised the question
whether the forces generated by shaking are sufficient to cause brain
damage. Leadbeater et al. (10) also justly criticized the way a lack of
precision in citation by some authors (proponents of the SBS) is raising
false hopes of an objective account of an unbiased witness, "but on
studying the cited reference one finds only an unsubstantiated statement of
belief that describes the act of 'shaking/slamming'". Leadbeater et al.
concluded that "It seems premature to warn against an act of violence when
its precise mechanism of action is not clearly defined, its potential for
serious trauma in the absence of concomitant impact is not supported by
existing experimental data, and the clinical findings said to result from
it are not in themselves specific".
This agrees with our experience of SBS from court cases in which the
unfortunate parents become victims of such unsubstantiated 'beliefs'. The
accused caregivers are presumed guilty when they are steadfast in
proclaiming their innocence and presumed guilty when they 'confess' to
shaking, without the court establishing just how strong and when the
alleged shaking should have occurred. The courts are often deaf to the fact
that the accused only admitted to slightly shaking the baby AFTER finding
it unconscious or fitting, in their legitimate effort to revive the baby.
"You just don't stand there and watch your baby die".
Hess's (7) and Hiller's (6) findings cast very serious and considerable
doubt on the acceptance of Caffey's multiple epiphyseal plate, rib and
skull fractures as definite roentgenological evidence of battering. Both
authors ascertained that such fractures are common in scurvy without undue
trauma to the child beyond normal handling and that greenstick fractures
are equally common in rickets. Both conditions result in increased
temporary bone fragility which may result in fractures due to normal
handling. It has been amply demonstrated that administration of vaccines,
such as DPT, results in depletion of vitamin C reserves, leading to acute
Pittman, in her landmark paper on "The Concept Of Pertussis As A
Toxin-Mediated Disease", (12) quoted Pekarek & Rezabek (11) who reported
that toxic pertussis vaccine, as reflected by the mouse weight gain test,
causes a temporary decrease in the level of ascorbic acid in the adrenals
of the rat. Considering that in contrast to rats, the human species does
not produce its own vitamin C, which must daily be replenished by oral
intake, the administration of toxic vaccines may result in serious
long-term depletion of vitamin C, unless large doses are administered
before and after such vaccines are given. Proper investigation of the
vitamin C status is imperative in establishing the cause of the observed
The above brief review of the perceived benchmark publications dealing with
issues directly related to the diagnosis of Shaken Baby Syndrome,
demonstrates that the SBS diagnosis is on very shaky ground indeed. The
pathology, considered currently to be foolproof evidence of inflicted
trauma, may be caused by inductions and other birth injuries, temporary
increased fragility of the bones due to acute scurvy caused by the toxic
effect of vaccines and the observed brain and retinal haemorrhages may also
be a result of vascular injuries due to the toxic effect of the
administered vaccines. Indeed, the only documented facts in the vast
majority of cases of SBS are the administered routine vaccines while the
evidence of any shaking, other than slight shaking as part of resuscitation
efforts by the caregivers who found the affected infants in distress, is
There are more plausible mechanisms than shaking which explain the
increased bleeding tendency without the standard tests revealing the usual
blood clotting disorder due to low platelet count. Hans Selye (16)
postulated the presence of liquid unclotting blood due to decreased
viscosity of blood as one of the characteristics of the second stage of his
non-specific stress syndrome which is caused by the stress dynamics of
retention of water rather than changed platelet count.
Indeed, shaking is the most unlikely cause of such injuries.
The practice of accusing innocent caregivers of injuring vaccine-damaged
children should cease forthwith.
All past cases of SBS should be revised and the victims released from
prison and compensated for their mental suffering, financial losses and
The practice of administering toxic substances such as vaccines should be
looked into and there must be an independent inquiry, which should include
the critics of vaccines, and which should investigate vaccines'
questionable prophylactic value and proven dangers.
And last but not least: the unjustifiable accusations of innocent parties
and victimization of the vaccine victims should serve as a serious warning
about the shortcomings of the western medical and legal systems and their
susceptibility to serious errors.
1. Caffey J, "Multiple fractures in the long bones of infants suffering
from subdural hematoma." Am J Roentgenol, 1946, 56: 163-173.
2. Caffey J, "On theory and practice of shaking infants." Am J Dis Child,
1972, 124(2): 161-169.
3. Devin F, Roques G, Rodor P and Weiller PJ, "Occlusion of central retinal
vein after hepatitis B vaccination." Lancet, 1996, 347: 1626.
4. Duhaime A-C, Gennarelli TA, Thibault LE, Bruce DA. Margulies SS and
Wiser R, "The Shaken Baby Syndrome. A clinical, pathological, and
biomechanical study." J Neurosurg, 1987, 66: 409-415.
5. Gilliland MGF, Luckenbach MW and Massicotte SJ, "The medico-legal
implications of detecting hemosiderin in the eyes of children who arc
suspected of being abused." Arch Ophthalmol, 1991, 109: 321-322.
6. Hiller HG. "Battered or not-the reappraisal of metaphyseal fragility."
Am J Roentgenol, Radial Therapy & Nuclear Medicine, 1972, 114(2): 241-245.
7. Hess AF, Scurvy, Past and Present J.B. Lippincon Company, Philadelphia
and London. 1920
8. Kalokerinos A, "How medical evidence freed one man." J Aust Coil nutr
Med & Env Med. (ACNEM) 1998; 17.1: 27-28.
9. Kirschner RH and Stein RJ, "The mistaken diagnosis of child abuse." Am J
Dis Child, 1985, 139: 873-975.
10. Leadbeatter S, "The shaken infant syndrome. Shaking alone may not be
responsible for damage." Br med J, 1995, 310: 1600 (letter).
11. Pekarek J and Rezabek K. "An endocrinological test for innocuity of the
pertussis vaccine." J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol, 1959, 3: 79-84.
12. Pittman M, "The concept of pertussis as a toxin-mediated disease." Ped
infect Dis J, 1984, 3(5): 467-486.
13. Samore MH and Siber GR, "Effect of pertussis toxin on susceptibility of
infant rats to Haemophilus influenzae type b." J infect Dis, 1992, 165:
14. Scheibner V, "Evidence of the association between non-specific stress
syndrome, DPT injections and cot death." Proc 2nd National Immunisation
Conference, The Public Health Association of Australia, 1992, Canberra,
Australia. 27-29 May 1991: 90-91.
15. Scheibner V, "The Shaken Baby Syndrome-the link to vaccination." Nexus,
1998 (Aug-Sep): 35-38 & 87.
16. Selye H. The Stress of Life. McGill University Press, Montreal, 1978.
17. Weiss AA and Hewlett EL, "Virulence factors of Bordetella pertussis."
Ann Rev Microbial, 1986, 40: 661-686.
18. Carty and Ratcliffe, "The Shaken Infant Syndrome", BMJ 1995;
Author contact details:
Dr. Viera Scheibner
Principal Research Scientist (Retired)
178 Govetts Leap Road
Blackheath NSW 2785
Tel: +61 247 878 203; Fax: +61 247 878-988
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